Although recurring nephrolithiasis may not be as common as single-episode disease, it poses greater problems to the patient's daily lifestyle and general future health status. The general need for an adequate history, examination, and radiological assessment is acknowledged, but a more intensive investigative and management approach is required. Investigations for secondary causes are paramount and may lead to identification of unusual metabolic abnormalities and specific therapies. Such medical approaches entail consideration of dietary adjustments to lower the urinary excretion of components of the renal stones, pharmacological therapies to modulate urinary constituents and limit renal stone risk, and monitoring efficacy of the therapy over time. This approach will prevent significant deterioration of renal function and other serious metabolic consequences.
- Recurrent nephrolithiasis
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