Apricoxib, a novel inhibitor of COX-2, markedly improves standard therapy response in molecularly defined models of pancreatic cancer

Amanda Kirane, Jason E. Toombs, Katherine Ostapoff, Juliet G. Carbon, Sara Zaknoen, Jordan Braunfeld, Roderich E. Schwarz, Francis J. Burrows, Rolf A. Brekken

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

46 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: COX-2 is expressed highly in pancreatic cancer and implicated in tumor progression. COX-2 inhibition can reduce tumor growth and augment therapy. The precise function of COX-2 in tumors remains poorly understood, but it is implicated in tumor angiogenesis, evasion of apoptosis, and induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Current therapeutic regimens for pancreatic cancer are minimally effective, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Here, we report that apricoxib, a novel COX-2 inhibitor in phase II clinical trials, significantly enhances the efficacy of gemcitabine/ erlotinib in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Experimental Design: Human pancreatic cell lines were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for response to apricoxib ± standard-of-care therapy (gemcitabine + erlotinib). Tumor tissue underwent posttreatment analysis for cell proliferation, viability, and EMT phenotype. Vascular parameters were also determined. Results: COX-2 inhibition reduced the IC50 of gemcitabine ± erlotinib in six pancreatic cancer cell lines tested in vitro. Furthermore, apricoxib increased the antitumor efficacy of standard combination therapy in several orthotopic xenograft models. In vivo apricoxib combination therapy was only effective at reducing tumor growth and metastasis in tumors with elevated COX-2 activity. In each model examined, treatment with apricoxib resulted in vascular normalization without a decrease in microvessel density and promotion of an epithelial phenotype by tumor cells regardless of basal COX-2 expression. Conclusions: Apricoxib robustly reverses EMT and augments standard therapy without reducing microvessel density and warrants further clinical evaluation in patients with pancreatic cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5031-5042
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Volume18
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2012

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Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
Pancreatic Neoplasms
gemcitabine
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Neoplasms
Therapeutics
Microvessels
Blood Vessels
Phenotype
Cell Line
Phase II Clinical Trials
apricoxib
Standard of Care
Growth
Heterografts
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Cell Survival
Research Design
Cell Proliferation
Apoptosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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Apricoxib, a novel inhibitor of COX-2, markedly improves standard therapy response in molecularly defined models of pancreatic cancer. / Kirane, Amanda; Toombs, Jason E.; Ostapoff, Katherine; Carbon, Juliet G.; Zaknoen, Sara; Braunfeld, Jordan; Schwarz, Roderich E.; Burrows, Francis J.; Brekken, Rolf A.

In: Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 18, No. 18, 15.09.2012, p. 5031-5042.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kirane, Amanda ; Toombs, Jason E. ; Ostapoff, Katherine ; Carbon, Juliet G. ; Zaknoen, Sara ; Braunfeld, Jordan ; Schwarz, Roderich E. ; Burrows, Francis J. ; Brekken, Rolf A. / Apricoxib, a novel inhibitor of COX-2, markedly improves standard therapy response in molecularly defined models of pancreatic cancer. In: Clinical Cancer Research. 2012 ; Vol. 18, No. 18. pp. 5031-5042.
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AU - Toombs, Jason E.

AU - Ostapoff, Katherine

AU - Carbon, Juliet G.

AU - Zaknoen, Sara

AU - Braunfeld, Jordan

AU - Schwarz, Roderich E.

AU - Burrows, Francis J.

AU - Brekken, Rolf A.

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N2 - Purpose: COX-2 is expressed highly in pancreatic cancer and implicated in tumor progression. COX-2 inhibition can reduce tumor growth and augment therapy. The precise function of COX-2 in tumors remains poorly understood, but it is implicated in tumor angiogenesis, evasion of apoptosis, and induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Current therapeutic regimens for pancreatic cancer are minimally effective, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Here, we report that apricoxib, a novel COX-2 inhibitor in phase II clinical trials, significantly enhances the efficacy of gemcitabine/ erlotinib in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Experimental Design: Human pancreatic cell lines were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for response to apricoxib ± standard-of-care therapy (gemcitabine + erlotinib). Tumor tissue underwent posttreatment analysis for cell proliferation, viability, and EMT phenotype. Vascular parameters were also determined. Results: COX-2 inhibition reduced the IC50 of gemcitabine ± erlotinib in six pancreatic cancer cell lines tested in vitro. Furthermore, apricoxib increased the antitumor efficacy of standard combination therapy in several orthotopic xenograft models. In vivo apricoxib combination therapy was only effective at reducing tumor growth and metastasis in tumors with elevated COX-2 activity. In each model examined, treatment with apricoxib resulted in vascular normalization without a decrease in microvessel density and promotion of an epithelial phenotype by tumor cells regardless of basal COX-2 expression. Conclusions: Apricoxib robustly reverses EMT and augments standard therapy without reducing microvessel density and warrants further clinical evaluation in patients with pancreatic cancer.

AB - Purpose: COX-2 is expressed highly in pancreatic cancer and implicated in tumor progression. COX-2 inhibition can reduce tumor growth and augment therapy. The precise function of COX-2 in tumors remains poorly understood, but it is implicated in tumor angiogenesis, evasion of apoptosis, and induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Current therapeutic regimens for pancreatic cancer are minimally effective, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Here, we report that apricoxib, a novel COX-2 inhibitor in phase II clinical trials, significantly enhances the efficacy of gemcitabine/ erlotinib in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Experimental Design: Human pancreatic cell lines were evaluated in vitro and in vivo for response to apricoxib ± standard-of-care therapy (gemcitabine + erlotinib). Tumor tissue underwent posttreatment analysis for cell proliferation, viability, and EMT phenotype. Vascular parameters were also determined. Results: COX-2 inhibition reduced the IC50 of gemcitabine ± erlotinib in six pancreatic cancer cell lines tested in vitro. Furthermore, apricoxib increased the antitumor efficacy of standard combination therapy in several orthotopic xenograft models. In vivo apricoxib combination therapy was only effective at reducing tumor growth and metastasis in tumors with elevated COX-2 activity. In each model examined, treatment with apricoxib resulted in vascular normalization without a decrease in microvessel density and promotion of an epithelial phenotype by tumor cells regardless of basal COX-2 expression. Conclusions: Apricoxib robustly reverses EMT and augments standard therapy without reducing microvessel density and warrants further clinical evaluation in patients with pancreatic cancer.

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