Assessing the pentose phosphate pathway using [2, 3- 13 C 2 ]glucose

Min Hee Lee, Craig R Malloy, Ian R Corbin, Junjie Li, Eunsook S Jin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Scopus citations


The pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is essential for reductive biosynthesis, antioxidant processes and nucleotide production. Common tracers such as [1,2- 13 C 2 ]glucose rely on detection of 13 C in lactate and require assumptions to correct natural 13 C abundance. Here, we introduce a novel and specific tracer of the PPP, [2,3- 13 C 2 ]glucose. 13 C NMR analysis of the resulting isotopomers is informative because [1,2- 13 C 2 ]lactate arises from glycolysis and [2,3- 13 C 2 ]lactate arises exclusively through the PPP. A correction for natural abundance is unnecessary. In rats receiving [2,3- 13 C 2 ]glucose, the PPP was more active in the fed versus fasted state in the liver and the heart, consistent with increased expression of key enzymes in the PPP. Both the PPP and glycolysis were substantially increased in hepatoma compared with liver. In summary, [2,3- 13 C 2 ]glucose and 13 C NMR simplify assessment of the PPP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere4096
JournalNMR in biomedicine
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019



  • glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase
  • glycolysis
  • hepatoma
  • lactate
  • NMR
  • ribose
  • stable isotope

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy

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