Assessment of Progressive Pathophysiology After Early Prenatal Diagnosis of the Ebstein Anomaly or Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia

Elif Seda Selamet Tierney, Doff B. McElhinney, Lindsay R. Freud, Wayne Tworetzky, Bettina F. Cuneo, Maria C. Escobar-Diaz, Catherine Ikemba, Brian T. Kalish, Rukmini Komarlu, Stéphanie M. Levasseur, Michael D. Puchalski, Gary M. Satou, Norman H. Silverman, Anita J. Moon-Grady

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

In fetuses with Ebstein anomaly or tricuspid valve dysplasia (EA/TVD), poor hemodynamic status is associated with worse neonatal outcome. It is not known whether EA/TVD fetuses with more favorable physiology earlier in gestation progress to more severe disease in the third trimester. We evaluated if echocardiographic indexes in EA/TVD fetuses presenting <24 weeks of gestation are reliable indicators of physiologic status later in pregnancy. This multicenter, retrospective study included 51 fetuses presenting at <24 weeks of gestation with EA/TVD and serial fetal echocardiograms ≥4 weeks apart. We designated the following as markers of poor outcome: absence of anterograde flow across the pulmonary valve, pulmonary valve regurgitation, cardiothoracic area ratio >0.48, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, or tricuspid valve (TV) annulus Z-score >5.6. Median gestational age at diagnosis was 21 weeks (range, 18 to 24). Eighteen fetuses (35%) had no markers for poor hemodynamic status initially, whereas only 7 of these continued to have no markers of poor outcome in the third trimester. Nine of 27 fetuses (33%) with anterograde pulmonary blood flow on the first echocardiogram developed pulmonary atresia; 7 of 39 (18%) developed new pulmonary valve regurgitation. LV dysfunction was present in 2 (4%) patients at <24 weeks but in 14 (37%) later (p <0.001). The TV annulus Z-score and cardiothoracic area both increased from diagnosis to follow-up. In conclusion, progressive hemodynamic compromise was common in this cohort. Our study highlights that care must be taken in counseling before 24 weeks, as the absence of factors associated with poor outcome early in pregnancy may be falsely reassuring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-111
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Volume119
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Selamet Tierney, E. S., McElhinney, D. B., Freud, L. R., Tworetzky, W., Cuneo, B. F., Escobar-Diaz, M. C., Ikemba, C., Kalish, B. T., Komarlu, R., Levasseur, S. M., Puchalski, M. D., Satou, G. M., Silverman, N. H., & Moon-Grady, A. J. (2017). Assessment of Progressive Pathophysiology After Early Prenatal Diagnosis of the Ebstein Anomaly or Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia. American Journal of Cardiology, 119(1), 106-111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.022