Importance: To date, the risk of developing second primary cancers (SPCs) after the first primary melanoma has not been studied in the era of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Objective: To assess differences in the risk of SPCs in patients with primary melanoma before (2005-2010) and after (2011-2016) the introduction and approval of ICIs. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database from January 2005 to December 2016 of patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma. Data were analyzed from January 4 to June 30, 2020. Exposures: Receipt of immunotherapy or other anticancer agents. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the development of second primary cancers in patients with melanoma. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for the development of SPCs before and after the introduction of ICIs. Results: Among 5016 patients with diagnosed metastatic melanoma, 2888 (58%) were younger than 65 years at the time of diagnosis, and 3441 (69%) were male. From 2005 to 2010, SIRs were 3.24 (95% CI, 0.08-18.04) for small intestine cancer, 1.93 (95% CI, 1.14-3.05) for lung and bronchus cancer, 2.77 (95% CI, 1.02-6.03) for kidney cancer, and 7.29 (95% CI, 2.93-15.02) for myeloma. From 2011 to 2016, SIRs were 9.23 (95% CI, 1.12-33.35) for small intestine cancer, 1.54 (95% CI, 0.71-2.93) for lung and bronchus cancer, 2.66 (95% CI, 0.73-6.82) for kidney cancer, and 5.90 (95% CI, 1.61-15.10) for myeloma. The overall risk of developing SPCs in individuals who survived the first primary melanoma was 65% higher (SIR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.35-2.00) in the pre-ICIs period and 98% higher (SIR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.57-2.45) in the post-ICIs period than the overall cancer incidence rate in the general population. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, an increase in the overall risk of second primary cancers after melanoma after the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors was observed. The pattern of SPCs has been altered in the era of systemic therapy. Close monitoring and screening for SPCs may be warranted in patients with metastatic melanoma.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||JAMA Network Open|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2020|
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