Association between prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and survival in patients with left ventricular ejection fraction between 30% and 35%

Sana M. Al-Khatib, Anne S. Hellkamp, Gregg C. Fonarow, Daniel B. Mark, Lesley H. Curtis, Adrian F. Hernandez, Kevin J. Anstrom, Eric D. Peterson, Gillian D. Sanders, Hussein R. Al-Khalidi, Bradley G. Hammill, Paul A. Heidenreich, Stephen C. Hammill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Clinical trials of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have included a minority of patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between 30% and 35%. Because a large number of ICDs in the United States are implanted in such patients, it is important to study survival associated with this therapy. OBJECTIVE: To characterize patients with LVEF between 30% and 35% and compare the survival of those with and without ICDs. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD registry (January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2007) with an LVEF between 30% and 35% who received an ICD during a heart failure hospitalization and similar patients in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) database (January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2009) with no ICD. The analysis was repeated in patients with an LVEF less than 30%. There were 3120 patients with an LVEF between 30% and 35% (816 in matched cohorts) and 4578 with an LVEF less than 30% (2176 in matched cohorts). Propensity score matching and Cox models were applied. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcomewas all-cause mortality; data were obtained from Medicare claims through December 31, 2011. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of the matched groups (n = 408 for both groups). Among patients with an LVEF between 30% and 35%, there were 248 deaths in the ICD Registry group, within a median follow-up of 4.4 years (interquartile range, 2.7-4.9) and 249 deaths in the GWTG HF group, within a median follow-up of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 2.1-4.4). The risk of all-cause mortality in patients with an LVEF between 30% and 35% and an ICD was significantly lower than that in matched patients without an ICD (3-year mortality rates: 51.4% vs 55.0%; hazard ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]; P = .04). Presence of an ICD also was associated with better survival in patients with an LVEF less than 30% (3-year mortality rates: 45.0% vs 57.6%; 634 and 660 total deaths; hazard ratio, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.65-0.81]; P < .001) (P = .20 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for heart failure and with an LVEF between 30% and 35% and less than 30%, survival at 3 years was better in patients who received a prophylactic ICD than in comparable patients with no ICD. These findings support guideline recommendations to implant prophylactic ICDs in eligible patients with an LVEF of 35% or less.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2209-2215
Number of pages7
JournalJAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume311
Issue number21
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 4 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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