BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 with higher mortality and respira-tory morbidity, but the relationship of AKI with cardiovascular disease outcomes has not been reported in this population. We sought to evaluate associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD), AKI, and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a large multicenter registry including 8574 patients with COVID-19 from 88 US hospitals, data were collected on baseline characteristics and serial laboratory data during index hospitalization. Primary exposure variables were CKD (categorized as no CKD, CKD, and end-stage kidney disease) and AKI (classified into no AKI or stages 1, 2, or 3 using a modification of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline definition). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The key secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac events, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, new-onset nonfatal heart failure, and nonfatal cardiogenic shock. CKD and end-stage kidney disease were not associated with mortality or major adverse cardiac events after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, AKI was significantly associated with mortality (stage 1 hazard ratio [HR], 1.72 [95% CI, 1.46–2.03]; stage 2 HR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.52–2.20]; stage 3 HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.44–1.98]; versus no AKI) and major adverse cardiac events (stage 1 HR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.74–2.71]; stage 2 HR, 2.70 [95% CI, 2.07–3.51]; stage 3 HR, 3.06 [95% CI, 2.52–3.72]; versus no AKI). CONCLUSIONS: This large study demonstrates a significant association between AKI and all-cause mortality and, for the first time, major adverse cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.
- Acute kidney injury
- Chronic kidney disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine