Associations Between Depressive Symptoms and HFpEF-Related Outcomes

Alvin Chandra, Michael A.D. Alcala, Brian Claggett, Akshay S. Desai, James C. Fang, John F. Heitner, Jiankang Liu, Bertram Pitt, Scott D. Solomon, Marc A. Pfeffer, Eldrin F. Lewis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: This study analyzed changes in depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) who were enrolled in the TOPCAT (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function) trial. Background: There are limited longitudinal data for depressive symptoms in patients with HFpEF. Methods: In patients enrolled in the United States and Canada (n = 1,431), depressive symptoms were measured using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Clinically meaningful changes in PHQ-9 scores were defined as worse (≥3-point increase) or better (≥3-point decrease). Multivariate models were used to identify predictors of change in depressive symptoms. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of symptom changes from baseline on subsequent incident cardiovascular events. Results: At 12 months, 19% of patients experienced clinically worsening depressive symptoms, 31% better, and 49% unchanged. Independent predictors of clinically meaningful improvement in depressive symptoms included higher baseline PHQ-9 scores, male sex, lack of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and randomization to spironolactone. After data were adjusted for cardiovascular comorbidities, higher baseline PHQ-9 was associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.16; p = 0.011), whereas worsening depressive symptoms at 12 months were associated with cardiovascular death (HR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.32 to 4.63; p = 0.005) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.93; p = 0.014). Randomization to spironolactone was associated with modest but statistically significant reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of the trial (p = 0.014). Conclusions: Higher baseline depressive symptoms and worsening depressive symptoms were associated with all-cause mortality. Randomization to spironolactone was associated with modest reduction in depressive symptoms. (Aldosterone Antagonist Therapy for Adults With Heart Failure and Preserved Systolic Function [TOPCAT]; NCT00094302)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1009-1020
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Heart Failure
Volume8
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Keywords

  • age
  • depression
  • HFpEF
  • quality of life
  • spironolactone
  • TOPCAT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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