Atazanavir is the first once-daily protease inhibitor for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and should be used only in combination therapy, as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. In addition to being the most potent protease inhibitor in vitro, atazanavir has a distinct cross-resistance profile that does not confer resistance to other protease inhibitors. However, resistance to other protease inhibitors often confers clinically relevant resistance to atazanavir. Currently, atazanavir is not a preferred protease inhibitor for initial HAART regimens. In treatment-naïve patients, atazanavir can be given as 400 mg/day. However, atazanavir should be pharmacologically boosted with ritonavir in treatment-experienced patients or when coadministered with either tenofovir or efavirenz. Patients who receive atazanavir experience similar rates of adverse events compared with patients receiving comparator regimens. An exception is an increased risk of asymptomatic hyperbilirubinemia, which is due to competitive inhibition of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. Although hyperbilirubinemia is a common adverse drug reaction of atazanavir therapy (22-47%), fewer than 2% of patients discontinue atazanavir therapy because of this adverse effect. Common adverse effects reported with atazanavir include infection, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, peripheral neuropathy, and rash. Of significance, fewer abnormalities have been observed in plasma lipid profiles in patients treated with atazanavir compared with other protease inhibitor-containing regimens. As with other protease inhibitors, atazanavir is also a substrate and moderate inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, in particular CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. Clinically significant drug interactions include (but are not limited to) antacids, proton pump inhibitors, histamine type 2 receptor antagonists, tenofovir, diltiazem, irinotecan, simvastatin, lovastatin, St. John's wort, and warfarin. We conclude that atazanavir is a distinctively characteristic protease inhibitor owing to its in vitro potency, once-daily dosing, distinct initial resistance pattern, and infrequent association with metabolic abnormalities.
- Highly active antiretroviral therapy
- Human immunodeficiency virus
- Protease inhibitor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)