Autophagy and viral neurovirulence

Anthony Orvedahl, Beth Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As terminally differentiated vital cells, neurons may be specialized to fight viral infections without undergoing cellular self-destruction. The cellular lysosomal degradation pathway, autophagy, is emerging as one such mechanism of neuronal antiviral defence. Autophagy has diverse physiological functions, such as cellular adaptation to stress, routine organelle and protein turnover, and innate immunity against intracellular pathogens, including viruses. Most of the in vivo evidence for an antiviral role of autophagy is related to viruses that specifically target neurons, including the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus, and the α-herpesvirus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). In the case of HSV-1, viral evasion of autophagy is essential for lethal encephalitis. As basal autophagy is important in preventing neurodegeneration, and induced autophagy is important in promoting cellular survival during stress, viral antagonism of autophagy in neurons may lead to neuronal dysfunction and/or neuronal cell death. This review provides background information on the roles of autophagy in immunity and neuroprotection, and then discusses the relationships between autophagy and viral neurovirulence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1747-1756
Number of pages10
JournalCellular Microbiology
Volume10
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008

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Autophagy
Viruses
Neurons
Antiviral Agents
Human Herpesvirus 1
Pathogens
Cell death
Sindbis Virus
Alphavirus
Degradation
Herpesviridae
Virus Diseases
Encephalitis
Innate Immunity
Organelles
Immunity
Cell Death
Proteins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Microbiology

Cite this

Autophagy and viral neurovirulence. / Orvedahl, Anthony; Levine, Beth.

In: Cellular Microbiology, Vol. 10, No. 9, 2008, p. 1747-1756.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Orvedahl, Anthony ; Levine, Beth. / Autophagy and viral neurovirulence. In: Cellular Microbiology. 2008 ; Vol. 10, No. 9. pp. 1747-1756.
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