Several viruses encounter various bacterial species within the host and in the environment. Despite these close encounters, the effects of bacteria on picornaviruses are not completely understood. Previous work determined that poliovirus (PV), an enteric virus, has enhanced virion stability when exposed to bacteria or bacterial surface polysaccharides such as lipopolysaccharide. Virion stabilization by bacteria may be important for interhost transmission, since a mutant PV with reduced bacterial binding had a fecal-oral transmission defect in mice. Therefore, we investigated whether bacteria broadly enhance stability of picornaviruses from three different genera: Enterovirus (PV and coxsackievirus B3 [CVB3]), Kobuvirus (Aichi virus), and Cardiovirus (mengovirus). Furthermore, to delineate strain-specific effects, we examined two strains of CVB3 and a PV mutant with enhanced thermal stability. We determined that specific bacterial strains enhance thermal stability of PV and CVB3, while mengovirus and Aichi virus are stable at high temperatures in the absence of bacteria. Additionally, we determined that bacteria or lipopolysaccharide can stabilize PV, CVB3, Aichi virus, and mengovirus during exposure to bleach. These effects are likely mediated through direct interactions with bacteria, since viruses bound to bacteria in a pulldown assay. Overall, this work reveals shared and distinct effects of bacteria on a panel of picornaviruses.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology