Due to their rarity, benign masses of the periurethral tissues and anterior vaginal wall are poorly understood. Arriving at the proper evaluation and treatment is challenging because many of these masses have similar presenting signs and symptoms, as well as overlapping differential diagnoses. The literature regarding these lesions mainly consists of level III evidence, mostly involving case reports and series. Clinical management has traditionally been based on established surgical principles and expert opinion. This review presents the pertinent embryologic and anatomic background for these benign masses, as well as other pertinent etiologi-cal processes. Furthermore, the most current evidence is reviewed regarding the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment for each mass.
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