Background The mechanisms by which gastroesophageal reflux promotes malignant progression in Barrett's esophagus are poorly understood. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3 kinase)/Akt pathway regulates proliferation and apoptosis. We hypothesized that the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway mediates the pro-proliferative and antiapoptotic effects of bile. Methods The Barrett's adenocarcinoma cell line, SEG-1, was exposed to the conjugated bile salt, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDA). Cell number was measured by the MTT incorporation assay and by Coulter counter. PI3 kinase/Akt activity was inferred from Western blots of phosphorylated and total Akt. Proliferation and apoptosis were determined by BrdU incorporation and cell death ELISA. Results A dose-dependent cell number increase was seen with a 20-minute exposure to GCDA. On Western blot, 200 μmol/L GCDA caused a 3-fold increase in Akt phosphorylation within 20 minutes, which was inhibited by 90% with the addition of PI3 kinase inhibitor, LY294002. LY294002 produced dose-dependent inhibition of GCDA-induced cell number increases. 200 μmol/L GCDA decreased apoptosis by 25%. Addition of LY294002 did not completely inhibit the antiapoptotic effect of bile. Conclusions Bile salts activate the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway and stimulate cell growth in SEG-1. The majority of this PI3 kinase-mediated effect is secondary to increases in proliferation rather than to decreases in apoptosis.
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