Biliary infection: Cholecystitis and cholangitis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the gallbladder and bile ducts are referred to, respectively, as cholecystitis and cholangitis. Most of these disorders involve acute bacterial infections and can be quite serious or even life-threatening problems that require prompt diagnosis and treatment. This chapter discusses the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and current treatment of both acute cholecystitis and acute cholangitis. ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS Acute cholecystitis refers to acute inflammation of the gallbladder. Ninety-eight percent of episodes of acute cholecystitis exhibit cystic duct obstruction on radionucleotide (hydroxy iminodiacetic acid; HIDA) scan, indicating that the process most often begins with obstruction of the cystic duct by a gallstone. In about 2% to 5% of cases termed acute acalculous cholecystitis, no gallstones are present, although some cases still exhibit obstruction of the cystic duct from fibrosis or edema. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is most often found in debilitated or critically ill patients who have not been fed by mouth for extended periods of time leading to nonemptying of the gallbladder and stasis of bile in its lumen. A cascade of events triggered by gallstones, stasis, or cystic duct obstruction result in inflammation in the wall of the gallbladder, superinfection with bacteria, and eventually compromise of the gallbladder wall unchecked, gangrene of the gallbladder develops and perforation of the gallbladder with abscess formation or generalized perforation ensues.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Infectious Disease
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages321-326
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9780511722240, 9780521871129
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

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Cholecystitis
Cholangitis
Gallbladder
Acute Cholecystitis
Cystic Duct
Gallstones
Infection
Acalculous Cholecystitis
Superinfection
Hydroxy Acids
Gangrene
Bile Ducts
Bacterial Infections
Critical Illness
Cystic Fibrosis
Bile
Abscess
Mouth
Edema
Inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Rege, R. V. (2010). Biliary infection: Cholecystitis and cholangitis. In Clinical Infectious Disease (pp. 321-326). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511722240.045

Biliary infection : Cholecystitis and cholangitis. / Rege, Robert V.

Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press, 2010. p. 321-326.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Rege, RV 2010, Biliary infection: Cholecystitis and cholangitis. in Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press, pp. 321-326. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511722240.045
Rege RV. Biliary infection: Cholecystitis and cholangitis. In Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press. 2010. p. 321-326 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511722240.045
Rege, Robert V. / Biliary infection : Cholecystitis and cholangitis. Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press, 2010. pp. 321-326
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