A drug of high potency and reduced immunogenicity is needed to develop a targeted biological drug that when injected systemically can penetrate to malignant B cells. Therefore, a novel deimmunized bispecific ligand-directed toxin targeted by dual high-affinity single-chain Fvs (scFv) spliced to PE38 with a KDEL COOH-terminus was genetically engineered. The aims were to reduce toxin immunogenicity using mutagenesis, measure the ability of mutated drug to elicit antitoxin antibody responses, and show that mutated drug was effective against systemic B-cell lymphoma in vivo. Both human anti-CD22 scFv and anti-CD19 scFv were cloned onto the same single-chain molecule with truncated pseudomonas exotoxin (PE38) to create the drug. Site-specific mutagenesis was used to mutate amino acids in seven key epitopic toxin regions that dictate B-cell generation of neutralizing antitoxin antibodies. Bioassays were used to determine whether mutation reduced potency, and ELISAs were done to determine whether antitoxin antibodies were reduced. Finally, a powerful genetically altered luciferase xenograft model was used that could be imaged in real time to determine the effect on systemic malignant human B-cell lymphoma, Raji-luc. Patient B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and B lymphoma were high in CD22 and CD19 expression. 2219KDEL7mut was significantly effective against systemic Raji-luc in mice and prevented metastatic spread. Mutagenesis reduced neutralizing antitoxin antibodies by ∼80% with no apparent loss in in vitro or in vivo activity. Because 2219KDEL7mut immunogenicity was significantly reduced and the drug was highly effective in vivo, we can now give multiple drug treatments with targeted toxins in future clinical trials.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research