The clinical diagnosis of heart failure (HF) relies primarily on signs and symptoms of congestion, complemented by radiographic and echocardiographic studies. Unfortunately, most physical and historical criteria for the diagnosis of HF (e.g., jugular venous distension, rales, peripheral edema, and dyspnea) are variably present and may only modestly increase the likelihood of a correct diagnosis (1,2). In the past decade, a number of circulating biomarkers have been identified that are elevated in individuals with cardiac overload or overt HF, raising the hope that measurement of these biomarkers could assist in acute diagnosis of HF, as well as the determination of prognosis.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Heart Failure, Second Edition|
|Number of pages||14|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2012|
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