Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is an uncommon histiocytic proliferative disorder that can present in nodal, extranodal, or, extremely rarely, in central nervous system (CNS)-restricted form. RDD is characterized histologically as a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis composed of atypical CD68+/S-100+/CD1a– macrophages demonstrating prominent emperipolesis and effacement of the surrounding tissue. Previously thought to represent a reactive process, recent studies have raised the possibility that RDD and other histiocytic lesions, including Erdheim–Chester and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, are clonal processes linked to somatic mutations in the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. Herein, we present a fatal case of RDD isolated to the CNS and used a next-generation targeted gene panel and Sanger sequencing to uncover a pathogenic deletion in the β3-αC loop of the kinase domain in exon 12 of BRAF. This mutation, previously described in melanoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, represents the first BRAF mutation of this kind identified in RDD. These findings support the idea that RDD is a neoplastic condition and raise the possibility that inhibitors of the MAP kinase pathway may be effective in RDD. Ann Neurol 2018;83:147–152.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology