An optimized single-shot proton double-quantum (DQ) filter for the quantification of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in human brain is reported. It is demonstrated that creation of DQ coherences following dual-resonance-selective refocusing gives a theoretical editing efficiency of 50% for the detection of the GABA resonance at 3.01 ppm. The sequence times are optimized with both numerical and experimental analyses of the editing performance, giving an experimental editing efficiency of 42%. It is acknowledged that homocarnosine is partially coedited, leading to a 20% contribution to the edited signal; however, macromolecule contamination is negligible in vivo under these experimental conditions. The GABA concentration in human prefrontal cortex is estimated to be 0.8 ± 0.1 μmol/g (mean ± SD, n = 6), with reference to the internal standard creatine at 9 μmol/g.
- Double-quantum filter
- Double-resonance selective refocusing
- Human brain
- Prefrontal cortex
- γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging