Cardiac tamponade: Pathophysiology, etiology, epidemiology, prognosis, symptomatology, clinical findings, differential diagnoses, laboratory studies, imaging, electrocardiography, pericardiocentesis and surgical treatment

Ali Nawaz Khan, Prabhakar Rajiah, Sumaira Macdonald, Durr-e-Sabih

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Cardiac tamponade (CTM) occurs when an accumulation of fluid, blood, pus, gas, or tumor in the pericardium result in decreased ventricular filling and hemodynamic compromise. It is a life-threatening condition, and prompt diagnosis and recognition of the cause is essential for therapy/palliation. It may follow trauma or cardiac interventions such as myocardial biopsy, radio-frequency ablation or other forms of cardiac catheterization. Symptoms of CTM can be non-specific such as anxiety, restlessness, palpitations, dyspnea, chest pain radiating to the neck, shoulders the epigastrium or back. The chest pain is exacerbated by deep inspiratory effort or a cough and occasionally relieved by an upright posture or by leaning forwards. Syncope and light-headedness' with pale or cyanosed skin and abdominal swelling and peripheral edema, feeble or absent pulse are other features of CTM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHorizons in World Cardiovascular Research. Volume 10
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages77-102
Number of pages26
ISBN (Electronic)9781634843287
ISBN (Print)9781634843270
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cardiac CT
  • Cardiac MRI
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Doppler echocardiography
  • Hemodynamic cardiac measurements
  • Pericardiectomy
  • Pericarditis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Cardiac tamponade: Pathophysiology, etiology, epidemiology, prognosis, symptomatology, clinical findings, differential diagnoses, laboratory studies, imaging, electrocardiography, pericardiocentesis and surgical treatment'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Khan, A. N., Rajiah, P., Macdonald, S., & Durr-e-Sabih (2016). Cardiac tamponade: Pathophysiology, etiology, epidemiology, prognosis, symptomatology, clinical findings, differential diagnoses, laboratory studies, imaging, electrocardiography, pericardiocentesis and surgical treatment. In Horizons in World Cardiovascular Research. Volume 10 (pp. 77-102). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..