Cardiovascular MR imaging at 3 T: Opportunities, challenges, and solutions

Prabhakar Rajiah, Michael A. Bolen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is well established in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal imaging, it is in the nascent stages in cardiovascular imaging applications, and there is limited literature on this topic. The primary advantage of 3 T over 1.5 T is a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which can be used as such or traded off to improve spatial or temporal resolution and decrease acquisition time. However, the actual gain in SNR is limited by other factors and modifications in sequences adapted for use at 3 T. Higher resonance frequencies result in improved spectral resolution, which is beneficial for fat suppression and spectroscopy. The higher T1 values of tissues at 3 T aid in myocardial tagging, angiography, and perfusion and delayed-enhancement sequences. However, there are substantial challenges with 3-T cardiac MR imaging, including higher magnetic field and radiofrequency inhomogeneities and susceptibility effects, which diminish image quality. Off-resonance artifacts are particularly challenging, especially with steady-state free precession sequences. These artifacts can be managed by using higher-order shimming, frequency scouts, or low repetition times. B1 inhomogeneities can be managed by using radiofrequency shimming, multitransmit coils, or adiabatic pulses. Chemical shifts are also increased at 3 T. The higher radiofrequency results in higher radiofrequency deposition power and a higher specific absorption rate. MR angiography, dynamic first-pass perfusion sequences, myocardial tagging, and MR spectroscopy are more effective at 3 T, whereas delayed-enhancement, flow quantification, and black-blood sequences are comparable at 1.5 T and 3 T. Knowledge of the relevant physics helps in identifying artifacts and modifying sequences to optimize image quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1612-1636
Number of pages25
JournalRadiographics
Volume34
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Artifacts
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Perfusion
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Physics
Magnetic Fields
Spectrum Analysis
Angiography
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Fats

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Cite this

Cardiovascular MR imaging at 3 T : Opportunities, challenges, and solutions. / Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bolen, Michael A.

In: Radiographics, Vol. 34, No. 6, 01.01.2014, p. 1612-1636.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rajiah, Prabhakar ; Bolen, Michael A. / Cardiovascular MR imaging at 3 T : Opportunities, challenges, and solutions. In: Radiographics. 2014 ; Vol. 34, No. 6. pp. 1612-1636.
@article{29a4927854b64b00b9ed7bf5b72629e3,
title = "Cardiovascular MR imaging at 3 T: Opportunities, challenges, and solutions",
abstract = "Although 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is well established in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal imaging, it is in the nascent stages in cardiovascular imaging applications, and there is limited literature on this topic. The primary advantage of 3 T over 1.5 T is a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which can be used as such or traded off to improve spatial or temporal resolution and decrease acquisition time. However, the actual gain in SNR is limited by other factors and modifications in sequences adapted for use at 3 T. Higher resonance frequencies result in improved spectral resolution, which is beneficial for fat suppression and spectroscopy. The higher T1 values of tissues at 3 T aid in myocardial tagging, angiography, and perfusion and delayed-enhancement sequences. However, there are substantial challenges with 3-T cardiac MR imaging, including higher magnetic field and radiofrequency inhomogeneities and susceptibility effects, which diminish image quality. Off-resonance artifacts are particularly challenging, especially with steady-state free precession sequences. These artifacts can be managed by using higher-order shimming, frequency scouts, or low repetition times. B1 inhomogeneities can be managed by using radiofrequency shimming, multitransmit coils, or adiabatic pulses. Chemical shifts are also increased at 3 T. The higher radiofrequency results in higher radiofrequency deposition power and a higher specific absorption rate. MR angiography, dynamic first-pass perfusion sequences, myocardial tagging, and MR spectroscopy are more effective at 3 T, whereas delayed-enhancement, flow quantification, and black-blood sequences are comparable at 1.5 T and 3 T. Knowledge of the relevant physics helps in identifying artifacts and modifying sequences to optimize image quality.",
author = "Prabhakar Rajiah and Bolen, {Michael A.}",
year = "2014",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1148/rg.346140048",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "34",
pages = "1612--1636",
journal = "Radiographics",
issn = "0271-5333",
publisher = "Radiological Society of North America Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular MR imaging at 3 T

T2 - Opportunities, challenges, and solutions

AU - Rajiah, Prabhakar

AU - Bolen, Michael A.

PY - 2014/1/1

Y1 - 2014/1/1

N2 - Although 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is well established in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal imaging, it is in the nascent stages in cardiovascular imaging applications, and there is limited literature on this topic. The primary advantage of 3 T over 1.5 T is a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which can be used as such or traded off to improve spatial or temporal resolution and decrease acquisition time. However, the actual gain in SNR is limited by other factors and modifications in sequences adapted for use at 3 T. Higher resonance frequencies result in improved spectral resolution, which is beneficial for fat suppression and spectroscopy. The higher T1 values of tissues at 3 T aid in myocardial tagging, angiography, and perfusion and delayed-enhancement sequences. However, there are substantial challenges with 3-T cardiac MR imaging, including higher magnetic field and radiofrequency inhomogeneities and susceptibility effects, which diminish image quality. Off-resonance artifacts are particularly challenging, especially with steady-state free precession sequences. These artifacts can be managed by using higher-order shimming, frequency scouts, or low repetition times. B1 inhomogeneities can be managed by using radiofrequency shimming, multitransmit coils, or adiabatic pulses. Chemical shifts are also increased at 3 T. The higher radiofrequency results in higher radiofrequency deposition power and a higher specific absorption rate. MR angiography, dynamic first-pass perfusion sequences, myocardial tagging, and MR spectroscopy are more effective at 3 T, whereas delayed-enhancement, flow quantification, and black-blood sequences are comparable at 1.5 T and 3 T. Knowledge of the relevant physics helps in identifying artifacts and modifying sequences to optimize image quality.

AB - Although 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is well established in neuroradiology and musculoskeletal imaging, it is in the nascent stages in cardiovascular imaging applications, and there is limited literature on this topic. The primary advantage of 3 T over 1.5 T is a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which can be used as such or traded off to improve spatial or temporal resolution and decrease acquisition time. However, the actual gain in SNR is limited by other factors and modifications in sequences adapted for use at 3 T. Higher resonance frequencies result in improved spectral resolution, which is beneficial for fat suppression and spectroscopy. The higher T1 values of tissues at 3 T aid in myocardial tagging, angiography, and perfusion and delayed-enhancement sequences. However, there are substantial challenges with 3-T cardiac MR imaging, including higher magnetic field and radiofrequency inhomogeneities and susceptibility effects, which diminish image quality. Off-resonance artifacts are particularly challenging, especially with steady-state free precession sequences. These artifacts can be managed by using higher-order shimming, frequency scouts, or low repetition times. B1 inhomogeneities can be managed by using radiofrequency shimming, multitransmit coils, or adiabatic pulses. Chemical shifts are also increased at 3 T. The higher radiofrequency results in higher radiofrequency deposition power and a higher specific absorption rate. MR angiography, dynamic first-pass perfusion sequences, myocardial tagging, and MR spectroscopy are more effective at 3 T, whereas delayed-enhancement, flow quantification, and black-blood sequences are comparable at 1.5 T and 3 T. Knowledge of the relevant physics helps in identifying artifacts and modifying sequences to optimize image quality.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907852110&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907852110&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1148/rg.346140048

DO - 10.1148/rg.346140048

M3 - Article

C2 - 25310420

AN - SCOPUS:84907852110

VL - 34

SP - 1612

EP - 1636

JO - Radiographics

JF - Radiographics

SN - 0271-5333

IS - 6

ER -