CD19 is a B cell-specific antigen expressed on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells but to date has not been effectively targeted with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. XmAb5574 is a novel engineered anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody with a modified constant fragment (Fc)-domain designed to enhance binding of FcγRIIIa. Herein, we demonstrate that XmAb5574 mediates potent antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), modest direct cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis but not complement-mediated cytotoxicity against CLL cells. Interestingly, XmAb5574 mediates significantly higher ADCC compared with both the humanized anti-CD19 nonengineered antibody it is derived from and also rituximab, a therapeutic antibody widely used in the treatment of CLL. The XmAb5574-dependent ADCC is mediated by natural killer (NK) cells through a granzyme B-dependent mechanism. The NK cell-mediated cytolytic and secretory function with XmAb5574 compared with the nonengineered antibody is associated with enhanced NK-cell activation, interferon production, extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation down-stream of Fcγ receptor, and no increased NK-cell apoptosis. Notably, enhanced NK cell-mediated ADCC with XmAb5574 was enhanced further by lenalidomide. These findings provide strong support for further clinical development of XmAb5574 as both a monotherapy and in combination with lenalidomide for the therapy of CLL and related CD19+ B-cell malignancies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology