The formation and maintenance of episodic memories are important for our daily life. Accumulating evidence from extensive studies with pharmacological, electrophysiological, and molecular biological approaches has shown that both entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus (HPC) are crucial for the formation and recall of episodic memory. However, to further understand the neural mechanisms of episodic memory processes in the EC-HPC network, cell-type-specific manipulation of neural activity with high temporal resolution during memory process has become necessary. Recently, the technological innovation of optogenetics combined with pharmacological, molecular biological, and electrophysiological approaches has significantly advanced our understanding of the circuit mechanisms for learning and memory. Optogenetic techniques with transgenic mice and/or viral vectors enable us to manipulate the neural activity of specific cell populations as well as specific neural projections with millisecond-scale temporal control during animal behavior. Integrating optogenetics with drug-regulatable activity-dependent gene expression systems has identified memory engram cells, which are a subpopulation of cells that encode a specific episode. Finally, millisecond pulse stimulation of neural activity by optogenetics has further achieved (a) identification of synaptic connectivity between targeted pairs of neural populations, (b) cell-type-specific single-unit electrophysiological recordings, and (c) artificial induction and modification of synaptic plasticity in targeted synapses. In this chapter, we summarize technological and conceptual advancements in the field of neurobiology of learning and memory as revealed by optogenetic approaches in the rodent EC-HPC network for episodic memories.