Cellular uptake of functional nanogels prepared by inverse miniemulsion ATRP with encapsulated proteins, carbohydrates, and gold nanoparticles

Daniel J. Siegwart, Abiraman Srinivasan, Sidi A. Bencherif, Anuradha Karunanidhi, Kwon Oh Jung, Swaroopa Vaidya, Rongchao Jin, Jeffrey O. Hollinger, Krzysztof Matyjaszewski

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76 Scopus citations

Abstract

Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was used to produce a versatile drug delivery system capable of encapsulating a range of molecules. Inverse miniemulsion ATRP permitted the synthesis of biocompatible and uniformly cross-linked poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanogels entrapping gold nanoparticles, bovine serum albumin, rhodamine B isothiocyanate-dextran, or fluoresceine isothiocyanate-dextran. These moieties were entrapped to validate several biological outcomes and to model delivery of range of molecules. Cellular uptake of nanogels was verified by transmission electron microscopy, gel electrophoresis, Western blotting, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometry. Fluorescent colocalization of nanogels with a fluorophore-conjugated antibody for clathrin indicated clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, internalization of nanogels either with or without GRGDS cell attachment-mediating peptides was quantified using flow cytometry. After 45 min of incubation, the uptake of unmodified FITC-Dx-loaded nanogels was 62%, whereas cellular uptake increased to >95% with the same concentration of GRGDS-modified FITC-Dx nanogels. In addition, a spheroidal coculture of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) validated cell endocytosis. Application of ATRP enabled the synthesis of a functionalized drug delivery system with a uniform network that is capable of encapsulating and delivering inorganic, organic, and biological molecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2300-2309
Number of pages10
JournalBiomacromolecules
Volume10
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 10 2009

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Siegwart, D. J., Srinivasan, A., Bencherif, S. A., Karunanidhi, A., Jung, K. O., Vaidya, S., Jin, R., Hollinger, J. O., & Matyjaszewski, K. (2009). Cellular uptake of functional nanogels prepared by inverse miniemulsion ATRP with encapsulated proteins, carbohydrates, and gold nanoparticles. Biomacromolecules, 10(8), 2300-2309. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm9004904