Background: Diagnosing cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency as a cause of polyneuropathy (PN) is problematic, as the frequency of both disorders increases with age, and serum Cbl levels can be difficult to interpret. Objectives: To identify unique clinical or laboratory features among PN patients with Cbl deficiency and to examine the role of testing of serum metabolite levels in the identification of Cbl deficiency. Design: Cohort survey comparing patients with Cbl deficiency and cryptogenic PN identified during a 2-year period. Cobalamin deficiency was diagnosed using low serum Cbl levels or elevated serum methylmalonic acid or homocysteine levels. Setting: Academic neuromusclar clinic. Results: Of 324 PN patients, 27 were diagnosed as having Cbl deficiency. Twelve had Cbl levels within the normal range, but elevated serum metabolite levels. Compared with patients with cryptogenic sensory/sensorimotor PN, those with Cbl deficiency were more likely to have concomitant involvement of the upper and lower extremities and experience symptom onset in the hands and a sudden onset of symptoms (P<.005). These differences were seen regardless of whether Cbl deficiency was defined using low Cbl levels or elevated serum metabolite levels. Autoimmune pernicious anemia was identified in 6 (50%) of 12 Cbl-deficient patients with normal serum Cbl levels. The patients with PN and Cbl deficiency showed little objective improvement after parenteral replacement therapy; however, progression occurred less often in these patients compared with those with cryptogenic sensory/sensorimotor PN (P=.02). Conclusions: This study highlights the challenges of proving that Cbl deficiency is the cause for PN and identifies clinical features that suggest Cbl-deficiency PN. Testing of serum metabolite levels may identify Cbl deficiency in some patients with normal serum Cbl levels.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
- Clinical Neurology