Change in smoking and drinking after September 11, 2001, in a national sample of ever smokers and ever drinkers

Betty Pfefferbaum, Carol S North, Rose L. Pfefferbaum, Elaine H. Christiansen, John K. Schorr, Robert D. Vincent, Angela S. Boudreaux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Telephone survey methodology was used to examine smoking and drinking after the September 11 terrorist attacks in a representative national sample. Most ever smokers and ever drinkers reported no change in substance use after the attacks. Smokers and drinkers who increased substance use were significantly more likely than those who did not to endorse a number of emotional reactions and functional difficulties. The pattern of associations of decreased use with emotional reactions and functional difficulties differed between smokers and drinkers. In general, decreased smoking was associated with denial of emotional reactions and functional difficulties whereas decreased drinking was associated with endorsement of these reactions and difficulties. The results have implications for research, clinical practice, and public health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)113-121
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2008



  • Disaster
  • Drinking
  • September 11
  • Smoking
  • Terrorism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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