Objectives: To describe the cancer-specific outcomes of patients with pathologic carcinoma in situ (CIS) only at radical cystectomy. Methods: The records of 812 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for bladder transitional cell carcinoma at three U.S. academic centers were reviewed. Of the 812 patients, 99 (12%) had CIS only at radical cystectomy. Results: The distribution of clinical stage for the 99 patients with CIS only at radical cystectomy was as follows: 47% of patients had CIS only, 8% had cT1, 15% had cT1 plus CIS, 10% had cT2, 13% had cT2 plus CIS, 6% had cTa, and 1% had Ta plus CIS. Two patients had lymphovascular invasion in the radical cystectomy specimen, and three had metastases to the lymph nodes. The actuarial recurrence-free survival estimates were 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.0% to 96.6%) at 3 years and 83.0% (95% CI 73.2% to 92.8%) at 5 and 7 years after radical cystectomy. Six patients (6%) had died of bladder cancer at analysis and 13 (13%) had died of other causes without evidence of disease recurrence. The actuarial disease-specific survival estimates were 95.8% (95% CI 91.2% to 99.9%) at 3 years, 90.7% (95% CI 82.4% to 98.9%) at 5 years, and 87.2% (95% CI 76.8% to 97.5%) at 7 years after surgery. On univariate Cox regression analyses, only metastasis to lymph nodes was associated with bladder cancer recurrence and death (P <0.001). Conclusions: Disease control seemed durable for patients with pathologic CIS only at radical cystectomy in the absence of metastases to the lymph nodes, even in the case of failure after intravesical therapy.
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