Purpose: Long-term survivors of Ewing sarcoma (ES) and osteosarcoma may be at risk for therapy-related acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (t-AL/MDS). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics of 1071 patients with osteosarcoma (n = 757) and ES (n = 314) who were treated between 1985 and 2014. Multivariable competing risk analysis was used to analyze predictors of t-AL/MDS, including a radiation dose (≥55.8 Gy vs <55.8 Gy) × disease site (pelvis/spine vs other) interaction term. A supplemental nested case-control study was conducted to assess the association between cumulative chemotherapy dose and t-AL/MDS. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 97 months (range, 0.03-380). Twenty patients developed t-AL/MDS, all of whom received chemotherapy and 15 of whom were treated with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy to ≥55.8 Gy was associated with development of t-AL/MDS (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-6.80; P =.015), and there was a significant radiation dose × disease site interaction term (adjusted hazard ratio, 6.70; 95% CI, 2.71-16.53; Pinteraction <.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence of t-AL/MDS in patients receiving ≥55.8 Gy radiation therapy to the pelvis or spine was 5.0% (95% CI, 0.9-14.9) for osteosarcoma and 10.7% for ES (95% CI, 3.3-23.2). In our nested case-control study, cumulative doses of ifosfamide and etoposide were associated with development of t-AL/MDS. Conclusions: Patients with osteosarcoma and ES receiving ≥55.8 Gy of radiation therapy to the pelvis or spine appear to be at increased risk for t-AL/MDS. Treatment with high cumulative doses of chemotherapy may further augment this risk.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2019|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research