Although cocaine ingestion may cause or contribute to myocardial infarction (MI), few contemporary data are available describing cocaine-associated MI. We describe the characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with MI and recent cocaine use from the Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network Registry - Get With The Guidelines (ACTION Registry-GWTG) program. The study population was 102,952 patients enrolled in the American College of Cardiology ACTION Registry-GWTG from July 2008 to March 31, 2010 from 460 sites across the United States. Cocaine exposure was defined as self-reported cocaine use within the last 72 hours or a positive urine test for cocaine. Demographics and medical history, presenting characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital outcomes were reported on a standard case record form. A total of 924 patients (0.9%) were cocaine positive. Compared with cocaine-negative patients, cocaine-positive patients were younger and predominantly men with fewer cardiovascular risk factors. There was a higher percentage of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (46.3% vs 39.7%) and cardiogenic shock at presentation in the cocaine-positive group, but the percentage of multivessel coronary artery disease was lower (53.3% vs 64.5%). Beta blockers within 24 hours (85.8% vs 90.1%, p <0.0001) and drug-eluting stents (40.1% vs 68.8%, p <0.0001 in patients with non-STEMI; 27.6% vs 54.6%, p <0.0001 in patients with STEMI) were used less commonly in cocaine-positive patients. Multivariable-adjusted in-hospital mortality was similar between cocaine-positive and cocaine-negative patients (adjusted odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.44, p value = 0.98). In conclusion cocaine-positive patients with acute coronary syndrome are younger with fewer risk factors, multivessel coronary artery disease and lower drug-eluting stent and β-blocker usage. Cocaine use was not associated with in-hospital mortality.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine