COMMD [copper metabolism gene MURR1 (mouse U2af1-rs1 region 1) domain] proteins constitute a recently identified family of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB)-inhibiting proteins, characterized by the presence of the COMM domain. In the present paper, we report detailed investigation of the role of this protein family, and specifically the role of the COMM domain, in NF-κB signalling through characterization of protein-protein interactions involving COMMD proteins. The small ubiquitously expressed COMMD6 consists primarily of the COMM domain. Therefore COMMD1 and COMMD6 were analysed further as prototype members of the COMMD protein family. Using specific antisera, interaction between endogenous COMMD1 and COMMD6 is described. This interaction was verified by independent techniques, appeared to be direct and could be detected throughout the whole cell, including the nucleus. Both proteins inhibit TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-induced NF-κB activation in a non-synergistic manner. Mutation of the amino acid residues Trp24 and Pro 41 in the COMM domain of COMMD6 completely abolished the inhibitory effect of COMMD6 on TNF-induced NF-κB activation, but this was not accompanied by loss of interaction with COMMD1, COMMD6 or the NF-κB subunit RelA. In contrast with COMMD1, COMMD6 does not bind to IκBα (inhibitory κBα), indicating that both proteins inhibit NF-κB in an overlapping, but not completely similar, manner. Taken together, these data support the significance of COMMD protein-protein interactions and provide new mechanistic insight into the function of this protein family in NF-κB signalling.
- Copper metabolism gene MURR1 domain protein 6 (COMMD6)
- Mouse U2af1-rs1 region 1 (MURR1)
- Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)
- Protein-protein interaction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology