The GPCR-family protein Smoothened (Smo) is an obligatory signal transducer of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Binding of Hh to its receptor Patched (Ptc) alleviates Ptc-mediated inhibition of Smo, allowing Smo to activate the Cubitus interruptus (Ci)/Gli family of zinc finger transcription factors. The activation of Smo is an early and crucial event in Hh signal transduction. Studies have shown that Hh induces cell surface/ciliary accumulation and phosphorylation of Smo by multiple kinases, including protein kinase A (PKA), casein kinase 1 (CK1), casein kinase 2 (CK2), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2/GRK2), and atypical PKC (aPKC). Here, we describe the assays used to examine the phosphorylation and activity of Smo, including in vitro kinase assay, phospho-specific antibodies, luciferase reporter assay, cell surface accumulation, and ciliary localization assays. These assays provide powerful tools to study Smo phosphorylation and activation, leading to mechanistic insight into Smo regulation.