Enhancers or inhibitors of insulin secretion could become therapeutics as well as lead to the identification of requisite β-cell regulatory pathways and increase our understanding of pancreatic islet function. Toward this goal, we previously used an insulin-linked luciferase that is co-secreted with insulin in MIN6 β-cells to perform a high-throughput natural product screen for chronic effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Using multiple phenotypic analyses, we identified that one of the top natural product hits, chromomycin A2 (CMA2), potently inhibited insulin secretion through at least three mechanisms: disruption of Wnt signaling, interfering with β-cell gene expression, and suppression of triggering calcium (Ca2+) influx. Chronic treatment with CMA2 largely ablated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion even post-washout, but did not inhibit glucose-stimulated generation of ATP or Ca2+ influx. However, by using the KATP channel-opener diazoxide, we uncovered defects in depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx which may contribute to the suppressed secretory response. Glucose-responsive ERK1/2 and S6 phosphorylation were also disrupted by chronic CMA2 treatment. The FUSION bioinformatic database indicated that the phenotypic effects of CMA2 clustered with a number of Wnt/GSK3 pathway-related genes. Consistently, CMA2 decreased GSK3 phosphorylation and suppressed activation of a β-catenin activity reporter. CMA2 and a related compound mithramycin are described to have DNA-interaction properties, possibly abrogating transcription factor binding to critical β-cell gene promoters. We observed that CMA2, but not mithramycin, suppressed expression of PDX1 and UCN3. However, neither expression of INSI/II nor insulin content was affected by chronic CMA2. The mechanisms of CMA2-induced insulin secretion defects may involve components both proximal and distal to Ca2+ influx. Therefore, CMA2 is an example of a chemical that can simultaneously disrupt β-cell function through both non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic mechanisms. Future applications of CMA2 and similar aureolic acid analogs for disease therapies should consider the potential impacts on pancreatic islet function.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)