CKI and CKII mediate the FREQUENCY-dependent phosphorylation of the WHITE COLLAR complex to close the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop

Qun He, Joonseok Cha, Qiyang He, Heng Chi Lee, Yuhong Yang, Yi Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

137 Scopus citations

Abstract

The eukaryotic circadian oscillators consist of circadian negative feedback loops. In Neurospora, it was proposed that the FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein promotes the phosphorylation of the WHITE COLLAR (WC) complex, thus inhibiting its activity. The kinase(s) involved in this process is not known. In this study, we show that the disruption of the interaction between FRQ and CK-1a (a casein kinase I homolog) results in the hypophosphorylation of FRQ, WC-1, and WC-2. In the ck-1aL strain, a knock-in mutant that carries a mutation equivalent to that of the Drosophila dbtL mutation, FRQ, WC-1, and WC-2 are hypophosphorylated. The mutant also exhibits ∼32 h circadian rhythms due to the increase of FRQ stability and the significant delay of FRQ progressive phosphorylation. In addition, the levels of WC-1 and WC-2 are low in the ck-1aL strain, indicating that CK-1a is also important for the circadian positive feedback loops. In spite of its low accumulation in the ck-1aL strain, the hypophosphorylated WCC efficiently binds to the C-box within the frq promoter, presumably because it cannot be inactivated through FRQ-mediated phosphorylation. Furthermore, WC-1 and WC-2 are also hypophosphorylated in the ckaRIP strain, which carries the disruption of the catalytic subunit of casein kinase II. In the ckaRIP strain, WCC binding to the C-box is constantly high and cannot be inhibited by FRQ despite high FRQ levels, resulting in high levels of frq RNA. Together, these results suggest that CKI and CKII, in addition to being the FRQ kinases, mediate the FRQ-dependent phosphorylation of WCs, which inhibit their activity and close the circadian negative feedback loop.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2552-2565
Number of pages14
JournalGenes and Development
Volume20
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2006

Keywords

  • Casein kinase I
  • ChIP
  • Circadian clock
  • DNA binding
  • Degradation
  • Knock-in

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology

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