Heart failure is a clinical syndrome defined by the presence of characteristic signs and symptoms. History taking and physical examination have particular utility in assessing patients who have heart failure. In recent years the validity of conventional signs and symptoms of heart failure has been tested in large population studies and in clinical trials, providing an evidence basis for their utility in the clinical assessment of the patient who has known or suspected heart failure. There also has been progress in characterizing the process of acute decompensation from a previously chronic stable state. This article addresses the usefulness of signs and symptoms and daily weights in the assessment and management of patients who have heart failure.
- Disease management
- Heart failure
- Physical examination
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine