Clinical validation of IsoPSA, a single parameter, structure-focused assay for improved detection of prostate cancer: A prospective, multicenter study

Eric A. Klein, Alan Partin, Yair Lotan, Jack Baniel, Martin Dineen, Jason Hafron, Kannan Manickam, Marc Pliskin, Matthew Wagner, Aimee Kestranek, Mark Stovsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: IsoPSA is a blood-based test that assesses prostate cancer (CaP) risk by partitioning and detecting cancer-specific structural isoforms of prostate specific antigen (PSA) with an aqueous 2- phase system. Objective: To validate the diagnostic performance of IsoPSA for High-Grade CaP and Any CaP risk on biopsy in men age ≥ 50 with total PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective, multicenter study of 888 men scheduled for prostate biopsy at 8 academic and community sites between August 2015 and August 2020. Intervention: IsoPSA test. Outcome Measurements and Statistical Analysis: Receiver operating characteristic and likelihood ratio analysis used to validate diagnostic performance for previously established IsoPSA Index cutoffs for High-Grade CaP (Gleason Score ≥ 7) and Any CaP (Gleason Score ≥ 6), compare IsoPSA to total PSA and % free PSA, and evaluate subgroups (total PSA 4–10 ng/ml, total PSA > 10 ng/ml, biopsy naïve, prior negative biopsy). Results and Limitations: The disease prevalence was 35.6% (High-Grade CaP) and 58.9% (Any CaP). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.783 (High-Grade CaP) and 0.770 (Any CaP). IsoPSA outperformed total PSA and % free PSA on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, specificity, positive and negative predictive value at similar sensitivity. Using selected IsoPSA Index cutoffs, an estimated 46% (High-Grade CaP) and 42% (Any CaP) of biopsies could be avoided in low-risk patients. IsoPSA displayed statistically informative likelihood ratio-based predictive characteristics. IsoPSA maintained accuracy in clinically relevant subgroups. Conclusions: IsoPSA diagnostic performance and predictive value is validated for High-Grade CaP and Any CaP in men age ≥ 50 with total PSA ≥ 4 ng/ml undergoing diagnostic biopsy. IsoPSA outperforms total and % free PSA in discriminating the risk of prostate cancer on biopsy. Patient Summary: IsoPSA has the potential to reduce unnecessary biopsies and improve the risk-benefit ratio for CaP early detection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Early detection
  • Prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology

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