Sarcomatoid carcinomas of the prostate are rare malignancies composed of carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Their etiology is uncertain and may represent a single malignant process or a mixture of two distinct malignancies. We report a clinical case of a patient who presented with locally advanced disease and was treated with hormonal and cytotoxic chemotherapy, but ultimately developed distant metastasis and died of the disease. A loss-of-heterozygosity analysis of the primary and metastatic tissues provided compelling evidence that the carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements are clonally related, supporting the hypothesis that a single malignant process underlies the etiology of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate.
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