Screening and surveillance substantially reduce both the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Screening of normal-risk individuals may be accomplished by several methods, including fecal occult blood testing, fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy, double contrast barium enema, and colonoscopy. New technologies for screening are being developed, such as fecal immunochemical testing for blood, fecal DNA testing, and virtual colonoscopy. Patients at increased risk for colorectal cancer, such as those with a positive family history, previous adenomatous polyps or cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease, should be offered more intensive evaluation and surveillance.
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