Combination of Entecavir/Peginterferon Alfa-2a in Children With Hepatitis B e Antigen–Positive Immune Tolerant Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

the Hepatitis B Research Network (HBRN)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The optimal management strategy for children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown. The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine the safety and efficacy of therapy with entecavir and peginterferon in a group of children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection. Children with immune-tolerant features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) received entecavir once-daily in a dose of 0.015 mg/kg (0.5 mg maximum) for 48 weeks; peginterferon alfa-2a (180 µg/1.73m 2 subcutaneously) once-weekly was added at the end of week 8 and continued until week 48. The primary endpoint was lack of detectable hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) with HBV DNA levels ≤1,000 IU/mL 48 weeks after stopping therapy. Sixty children (75% female), median age 10.9 (range, 3.4-17.9) years, were enrolled. All were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg and had high levels of HBV DNA with normal or minimally elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Fifty-five children completed the entire 48-week course of therapy. At 48 weeks after treatment ended (week 96), 2 children (3%) achieved the primary endpoint and were also HBsAg negative and anti–hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) positive. One child was HBeAg positive but HBsAg negative at week 60; another was HBeAg negative but HBsAg positive at week 72, which were their last clinic visits. In the remaining children, serum ALT and HBV DNA levels at week 96 were similar to baseline. Thirty-seven children experienced adverse events (AEs), and 1 had a serious AE (SAE). Conclusion: The combination of entecavir and peginterferon for up to 48 weeks rarely led to loss of HBeAg with sustained suppression of HBV DNA levels in children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection, and treatment was associated with frequent AEs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalHepatology
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Chronic Hepatitis B
Virus Diseases
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis B e Antigens
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
DNA
Alanine Transaminase
peginterferon alfa-2a
entecavir
Therapeutics
Surface Antigens
Ambulatory Care
Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies
Clinical Trials
Safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology

Cite this

Combination of Entecavir/Peginterferon Alfa-2a in Children With Hepatitis B e Antigen–Positive Immune Tolerant Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection. / the Hepatitis B Research Network (HBRN).

In: Hepatology, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Combination of Entecavir/Peginterferon Alfa-2a in Children With Hepatitis B e Antigen–Positive Immune Tolerant Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection",
abstract = "The optimal management strategy for children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown. The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine the safety and efficacy of therapy with entecavir and peginterferon in a group of children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection. Children with immune-tolerant features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) received entecavir once-daily in a dose of 0.015 mg/kg (0.5 mg maximum) for 48 weeks; peginterferon alfa-2a (180 µg/1.73m 2 subcutaneously) once-weekly was added at the end of week 8 and continued until week 48. The primary endpoint was lack of detectable hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) with HBV DNA levels ≤1,000 IU/mL 48 weeks after stopping therapy. Sixty children (75{\%} female), median age 10.9 (range, 3.4-17.9) years, were enrolled. All were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg and had high levels of HBV DNA with normal or minimally elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Fifty-five children completed the entire 48-week course of therapy. At 48 weeks after treatment ended (week 96), 2 children (3{\%}) achieved the primary endpoint and were also HBsAg negative and anti–hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) positive. One child was HBeAg positive but HBsAg negative at week 60; another was HBeAg negative but HBsAg positive at week 72, which were their last clinic visits. In the remaining children, serum ALT and HBV DNA levels at week 96 were similar to baseline. Thirty-seven children experienced adverse events (AEs), and 1 had a serious AE (SAE). Conclusion: The combination of entecavir and peginterferon for up to 48 weeks rarely led to loss of HBeAg with sustained suppression of HBV DNA levels in children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection, and treatment was associated with frequent AEs.",
author = "{the Hepatitis B Research Network (HBRN)} and Philip Rosenthal and Ling, {Simon C.} and Belle, {Steven H.} and Murray, {Karen F.} and Norberto Rodriguez-Baez and Schwarzenberg, {Sarah J.} and Jeffrey Teckman and Lin, {Hsing Hua S.} and Schwarz, {Kathleen B.}",
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AU - the Hepatitis B Research Network (HBRN)

AU - Rosenthal, Philip

AU - Ling, Simon C.

AU - Belle, Steven H.

AU - Murray, Karen F.

AU - Rodriguez-Baez, Norberto

AU - Schwarzenberg, Sarah J.

AU - Teckman, Jeffrey

AU - Lin, Hsing Hua S.

AU - Schwarz, Kathleen B.

PY - 2019/1/1

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N2 - The optimal management strategy for children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown. The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine the safety and efficacy of therapy with entecavir and peginterferon in a group of children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection. Children with immune-tolerant features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) received entecavir once-daily in a dose of 0.015 mg/kg (0.5 mg maximum) for 48 weeks; peginterferon alfa-2a (180 µg/1.73m 2 subcutaneously) once-weekly was added at the end of week 8 and continued until week 48. The primary endpoint was lack of detectable hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) with HBV DNA levels ≤1,000 IU/mL 48 weeks after stopping therapy. Sixty children (75% female), median age 10.9 (range, 3.4-17.9) years, were enrolled. All were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg and had high levels of HBV DNA with normal or minimally elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Fifty-five children completed the entire 48-week course of therapy. At 48 weeks after treatment ended (week 96), 2 children (3%) achieved the primary endpoint and were also HBsAg negative and anti–hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) positive. One child was HBeAg positive but HBsAg negative at week 60; another was HBeAg negative but HBsAg positive at week 72, which were their last clinic visits. In the remaining children, serum ALT and HBV DNA levels at week 96 were similar to baseline. Thirty-seven children experienced adverse events (AEs), and 1 had a serious AE (SAE). Conclusion: The combination of entecavir and peginterferon for up to 48 weeks rarely led to loss of HBeAg with sustained suppression of HBV DNA levels in children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection, and treatment was associated with frequent AEs.

AB - The optimal management strategy for children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown. The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine the safety and efficacy of therapy with entecavir and peginterferon in a group of children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection. Children with immune-tolerant features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) received entecavir once-daily in a dose of 0.015 mg/kg (0.5 mg maximum) for 48 weeks; peginterferon alfa-2a (180 µg/1.73m 2 subcutaneously) once-weekly was added at the end of week 8 and continued until week 48. The primary endpoint was lack of detectable hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) with HBV DNA levels ≤1,000 IU/mL 48 weeks after stopping therapy. Sixty children (75% female), median age 10.9 (range, 3.4-17.9) years, were enrolled. All were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg and had high levels of HBV DNA with normal or minimally elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Fifty-five children completed the entire 48-week course of therapy. At 48 weeks after treatment ended (week 96), 2 children (3%) achieved the primary endpoint and were also HBsAg negative and anti–hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) positive. One child was HBeAg positive but HBsAg negative at week 60; another was HBeAg negative but HBsAg positive at week 72, which were their last clinic visits. In the remaining children, serum ALT and HBV DNA levels at week 96 were similar to baseline. Thirty-seven children experienced adverse events (AEs), and 1 had a serious AE (SAE). Conclusion: The combination of entecavir and peginterferon for up to 48 weeks rarely led to loss of HBeAg with sustained suppression of HBV DNA levels in children in the immune-tolerant phase of HBV infection, and treatment was associated with frequent AEs.

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