Combined angiotensin inhibition for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy

Linda F. Fried, Nicholas Emanuele, Jane H. Zhang, Mary Brophy, Todd A. Conner, William Duckworth, David J. Leehey, Peter A. McCullough, Theresa O'Connor, Paul M. Palevsky, Robert F. Reilly, Stephen L. Seliger, Stuart R. Warren, Suzanne Watnick, Peter Peduzzi, Peter Guarino

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Combination therapy with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) decreases proteinuria; however, its safety and effect on the progression of kidney disease are uncertain. METHODS: We provided losartan (at a dose of 100 mg per day) to patients with type 2 diabetes, a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 300, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30.0 to 89.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and then randomly assigned them to receive lisinopril (at a dose of 10 to 40 mg per day) or placebo. The primary end point was the first occurrence of a change in the estimated GFR (a decline of ≥30 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 if the initial estimated GFR was ?60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 or a decline of ≥50% if the initial estimated GFR was <60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death. The secondary renal end point was the first occurrence of a decline in the estimated GFR or ESRD. Safety outcomes included mortality, hyperkalemia, and acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The study was stopped early owing to safety concerns. Among 1448 randomly assigned patients with a median follow-up of 2.2 years, there were 152 primary endpoint events in the monotherapy group and 132 in the combination-therapy group (hazard ratio with combination therapy, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.12; P = 0.30). A trend toward a benefit from combination therapy with respect to the secondary end point (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.05; P = 0.10) decreased with time (P = 0.02 for nonproportionality). There was no benefit with respect to mortality (hazard ratio for death, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.49; P = 0.75) or cardiovascular events. Combination therapy increased the risk of hyperkalemia (6.3 events per 100 person-years, vs. 2.6 events per 100 person-years with monotherapy; P<0.001) and acute kidney injury (12.2 vs. 6.7 events per 100 person-years, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Combination therapy with an ACE inhibitor and an ARB was associated with an increased risk of adverse events among patients with diabetic nephropathy. (Funded by the Cooperative Studies Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development; VA NEPHRON-D ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00555217.)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1892-1903
Number of pages12
JournalNew England Journal of Medicine
Volume369
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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    Fried, L. F., Emanuele, N., Zhang, J. H., Brophy, M., Conner, T. A., Duckworth, W., Leehey, D. J., McCullough, P. A., O'Connor, T., Palevsky, P. M., Reilly, R. F., Seliger, S. L., Warren, S. R., Watnick, S., Peduzzi, P., & Guarino, P. (2013). Combined angiotensin inhibition for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. New England Journal of Medicine, 369(20), 1892-1903. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1303154