We compared a high-carbohydrate diet with a high-fat diet (specifically, a diet high in monounsaturated fatty acids) for effects on glycemic control and plasma lipoproteins in 10 patients with non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) receiving insulin therapy. The patients were randomly assigned to receive first one diet and then the other, each for 28 days, in a metabolic ward. In the high-carbohydrate diet, 25 percent of the energy was in the form of fat and 60 percent in the form of carbohydrates (47 percent of the total energy was in the form of complex carbohydrates); the high-monounsaturated-fat diet was 50 percent fat (33 percent of the total energy in the form of monounsaturated fatty acids) and 35 percent carbohydrates. The two diets had the same amounts of simple carbohydrates and fiber. As compared with the high-carbohydrate diet, the highmonounsaturated-fat diet resulted in lower mean plasma glucose levels and reduced insulin requirements, lower levels of plasma triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (lower by 25 and 35 percent, respectively; P<0.01), and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (higher by 13 percent; P<0.005). Levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol did not differ significantly in patients on the two diets. These preliminary results suggest that partial replacement of complex carbohydrates with monounsaturated fatty acids in the diets of patients with NIDDM does not increase the level of LDL cholesterol and may improve glycemic control and the levels of plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. (N Engl J Med 1988; 319:829–34).
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