Purpose: In this study, different single-voxel localization sequences were implemented and systematically compared for the first time for phosphorous MRS (31P-MRS) in the human brain at 9.4 T. Methods: Two multishot sequences, image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) and a conventional slice-selective excitation combined with localization by adiabatic selective refocusing (semiLASER) variant of the spin-echo full intensity–acquired localized spectroscopy (SPECIAL-semiLASER), and two single-shot sequences, semiLASER and stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), were implemented and optimized for 31P-MRS in the human brain at 9.4 T. Pulses and coil setup were optimized, localization accuracy was tested in phantom experiments, and absolute SNR of the sequences was compared in vivo. The SNR per unit time (SNR/t) was derived and compared for all four sequences and verified experimentally for ISIS in two different voxel sizes (3 × 3 × 3 cm3, 5 × 5 × 5 cm3, 10-minute measurement time). Metabolite signals obtained with ISIS were quantified. The possible spectral quality in vivo acquired in clinically feasible time (3:30 minutes, 3 × 3 × 3 cm3) was explored for two different coil setups. Results: All evaluated sequences performed with good localization accuracy in phantom experiments and provided well-resolved spectra in vivo. However, ISIS has the lowest chemical shift displacement error, the best localization accuracy, the highest SNR/t for most metabolites, provides metabolite concentrations comparable to literature values, and is the only one of the sequences that allows for the detection of the whole 31P spectrum, including β–adenosine triphosphate, with the used setup. The SNR/t of STEAM is comparable to the SNR/t of ISIS. The semiLASER and SPECIAL-semiLASER sequences provide good results for metabolites with long T2. Conclusion: At 9.4 T, high-quality single-voxel localized 31P-MRS can be performed in the human brain with different localization methods, each with inherent characteristics suitable for different research issues.
- ultrahigh field
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging