The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) neither benefits nor harms patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with cardiogenic shock (CS) but may stabilize those with chronic heart failure who decompensate into CS. We sought to compare its hemodynamic effects in these 2 populations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the hemodynamic effects of IABP for AMI or acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) patients with hemodynamic evidence of CS. The primary outcome was cardiac output (CO) change following insertion. In total, 205 patients were treated for CS resulting from AMI (73; 35.6%) or ADHF (132; 64.4%). At baseline, both cohorts had significant hemodynamic compromise with mean arterial pressure 75.6 ± 12.3 mm Hg, CO 3.02 ± 0.84 L/min, and cardiac power index 0.26 ± 0.06 W/m2; these parameters were nearly identical between groups though ADHF-CS patients had a higher pre-IABP mean pulmonary artery (PA) pressure than AMI-CS patients. After IABP insertion, ADHF-CS patients had moderate CO augmentation whereas AMI-CS experienced almost no improvement (0.58 ± 0.79 L/min vs 0.12 ± 1.00 L/min; p = 0.0009). Intracardiac filling pressures were reduced by similar amounts in both cohorts. Systemic vascular resistance was reduced in patients with ADHF-CS but not in those with AMI-CS. In conclusion, following IABP insertion, ADHF-CS patients experience roughly a 5-fold greater CO augmentation compared with AMI-CS patients. Pre-IABP PA pressure differences and differential systemic vascular resistance reduction may explain these results and shed light on recent evidence supporting IABP use in ADHF-CS and curbing it in AMI-CS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine