BACKGROUND: Concerns about discordance between echocardiographic and invasive mean gradients after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with balloon-expandable valves (BEVs) versus self-expanding valves (SEVs) exist. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a multicenter study, direct-invasive and echocardiography-derived transvalvular mean gradients obtained before and after TAVR were compared as well as post-TAVR and discharge echocardiographic mean gradients in BEVs versus SEVs in 808 patients. Pre-TAVR, there was good correlation (R=0.614; P<0.0001) between direct-invasive and echocardiography-derived mean gradients and weak correlation (R=0.138; P<0.0001) post-TAVR. Compared with postTAVR echocardiographic mean gradients, both valves exhibit lower invasive and higher discharge echocardiographic mean gradients. Despite similar invasive mean gradients, a small BEV exhibits higher post-TAVR and discharge echocardiographic mean gradients than a large BEV, whereas small and large SEVs exhibit similar post-TAVR and discharge mean gradients. An ejection fraction <50% (P=0.028) and higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of mortality score (P=0.007), but not invasive or echocardiographic mean gradient ≥10 mm Hg (P=0.378 and P=0.341, respectively), nor discharge echocardiographic mean gradient ≥20 mm Hg (P=0.393), were associated with increased 2-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Invasively measured and echocardiography-derived transvalvular mean gradients correlate well in aortic stenosis but weakly post-TAVR. Post-TAVR, echocardiography overestimates transvalvular mean gradients compared with invasive measurements, and poor correlation suggests these modalities cannot be used interchangeably. Moreover, echocardiographic mean gradients are higher on discharge than post-TAVR in all valves. Despite similar invasive mean gradients, a small BEV exhibits higher post-TAVR and discharge echocardiographic mean gradients than a large BEV, whereas small and large SEVs exhibit similar post-TAVR and discharge mean gradients. Immediately post-TAVR, elevated echocardiographic-derived mean gradients should be assessed with caution and compared with direct-invasive mean gradients. A low ejection fraction and higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, but not elevated mean gradients, are associated with increased 2-year mortality.
- Bernoulli equation
- Echocardiographic and invasive discordance
- Pressure recovery
- Transcatheter aortic valve replacement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine