Molecular cloning has permitted identification of several novel isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase; these proteins now comprise a family of at least 10. All of the membrane-bound enzymes are activated by the α subunit of G(α), a receptor-regulated, heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein, and by the diterpene forskolin. Certain cyclases are also activated by Ca2+-calmodulin, while some are inhibited by the α subunits of the three G(i) proteins. The discovery of new isoforms has also revealed unanticipated mechanisms of regulation, including activation or inhibition by the G-protein βγ subunit complex, inhibition by G(0α), inhibition by Ca2+, and phosphorylation by protein kinases C and A. The effects of activators are often highly synergistic or conditional, suggesting function of these enzymes as coincidence detectors. The plethora of receptors, G proteins, and adenylyl cyclases permits assembly of very complex signaling systems with a wide variety of integrative characteristics.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||20|
|Journal||Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology|
|State||Published - 1996|
- G proteins
- adenylyl cyclase
ASJC Scopus subject areas