Background: The Bernese (Ganz) periacetabular osteotomy is an effective surgical procedure to reorient the acetabulum, allowing restoration of anatomic femoral head coverage and medial translation of the hip in adults with hip dysplasia. However, it is a challenging surgical procedure, and we know of no study that has specifically analyzed the complications and associated factors seen with this procedure in adolescent patients. Methods: A retrospective clinical and radiographic review of a consecutive series of adolescent patients who underwent a Bernese periacetabular osteotomy for hip dysplasia was conducted. Results: Eighty-three osteotomies were performed in seventy-six patients with an average age (and standard deviation) of 15.6 ± 2.4 years. Significant improvement from the preoperative to the two-year follow-up evaluation was seen radiographically with regard to the lateral center-edge angle (-0.14° to 35.5°), the ventral center-edge angle (-5.13° to 31.3°), and the femoral head extrusion index (38.4% to 7.7%) (p < 0.0001 for all). There were three major complications, including excessive arterial bleeding requiring embolization in a patient with a prior acetabuloplasty, osteonecrosis of the acetabular fragment in a patient with severe dysplasia and subluxation of the hip, and osteonecrosis of the femoral head following combined periacetabular and femoral osteotomies in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Eighteen hips (22%) had minor complications, including nonunion of the superior pubic ramus osteotomy (five hips), a superficial stitch abscess (four), and transient lateral femoral cutaneous nerve palsy (four). Nine hips (11%) underwent removal of symptomatic screws, and two required a second operation to reposition the acetabular fragment. An underlying diagnosis other than developmental dysplasia increased the prevalence of minor complications (p = 0.0017), while a major complication was more likely with longer surgery time, greater blood loss, and proximal femoral osteotomy. Conclusions: The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is a joint-preserving procedure that very effectively corrects acetabular dysplasia in adolescent patients, providing improved radiographic results and a low rate of complications. Although the rate of minor complications is increased when there is an underlying diagnosis other than developmental dysplasia, no other predictors were identified. However, a major complication is more likely with a longer duration of surgery and with a concomitant femoral varus osteotomy. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine