The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle to the delivery of therapeutics to the brain. Focused ultrasound (FUS) in combination with microbubbles can non-invasively open the BBB in a targeted manner. Bolus intravenous injections of microbubbles are standard practice, but dynamic influx and clearance mechanisms prevent delivery of a uniform dose with time. When multiple targets are selected for sonication in a single treatment, uniform serum concentrations of microbubbles are important for consistent BBB opening. Herein, we show that bubble infusions were able to achieve consistent BBB opening at multiple target sites. FUS exposures were conducted with different Definity microbubble concentrations at various acoustic pressures. To quantify the effects of infusion on BBB opening, we calculated the MRI contrast enhancement rate. When infusions were performed at rates of 7.2 µl microbubbles/kg/min or below, we were able to obtain consistent BBB opening without injury at all pressures. However, when infusion rates exceeded 20 µl/kg/min, signs of injury occurred at pressures from 0.39 to 0.56 MPa. When compared to bolus injections, a bubble infusion offers a more controlled and consistent approach to multi-target BBB disruption.
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