Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are one of the most widely used antihyperglycemic therapeutic classes in type 2 diabetes mellitus management. In April 2016 and August 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced sequential labelling requirements regarding heart failure risk related to DPP-4i. We explored longitudinal trends in prescription of DPP-4i before and after these FDA warnings in a multicenter health system. We identified all first-time prescriptions of DPP4i or their combinations across the Partners HealthCare system (Boston, MA) from October 2006 (FDA approval of first DPP-4i) to December 2018. Overall, 11,830 patients were newly prescribed DPP-4i during the study period. Primary care physicians (31.5%) were the most common prescribing specialty. Overall, 8.4%, 20.4%, and 11.6% had heart failure, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease, respectively. Median number of background antihyperglycemic therapies was 2 [25th to 75th percentiles 1 to 2], commonly metformin (65.4%) and/or insulin (36.4%). The vast majority of prescriptions were sitagliptin (85.7%), followed by linagliptin (9.5%), saxagliptin (4.7%), and alogliptin (0.2%). Quarterly prescriptions rose gradually from 2006 to mid-2016, and have decreased consistently since then for each of the 4 DPP-4i. Declines in DPP-4i among high-risk groups and those initiated by endocrinologists were most pronounced. In conclusion, although DPP-4i remain a dominant oral antihyperglycemic therapy in clinical practice, new prescriptions have declined recently. These data may reflect relatively swift health system response to broad FDA safety communications regarding heart failure risk, which appeared to impact the entire DPP-4i class, including specific drugs that have not demonstrated any increased risk of heart failure.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine