In the biology of a cell, the central role of p53 in controlling functions such as G1/S transition (check point) and DNA damage repair, and as a trigger of apoptosis, is well established. Somatic mutations or other changes in P53 have been reported in numerous tumor types, and in some of these, they are associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we examined 237 cytogenetically characterized B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) for somatic changes in P53 by Southern blot analysis, by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) of exon 5 through 9, and by direct sequencing of SSCP variants to determine the frequency and types of mutations and their clinical significance. In a portion of these (173 tumors), we also studied p53 expression by immunostaining. On Southern blots, no gross change was identified in P53 and no mutation was identified in exon 9. In exons 5 through 8, 27 different mutations were identified in 25 patients (23 single- base substitutions, 3 deletions, 1 duplication). Mutations in P53 were identified in 25 of 237 tumors (10.5%), which included 1 of 45 small lymphocytic lymphomas (SLLs), 2 of 38 follicular small cleaved-cell lymphomas (FSCCs), 2 of 35 follicular mixed small cleaved-cell and large-cell lymphomas (FMxs), 1 of 4 follicular large-cell lymphomas (FLCs), 1 of 14 diffuse small cleaved-cell lymphomas (DSCCs), 2 of 17 diffuse mixed small- and large-cell lymphomas (DMxs), and 16 of 84 diffuse large-cell lymphomas (DLCCs); the difference between the histologic groups was significant (P < .01). Among mantle-cell lymphoma (MC) patients, 3 of 10 had mutations. In 16 patients, the mutation was identified in specimens obtained at diagnosis. Mutation of transition type and transversion type occurred at a relative frequency of 2:1. Thirty percent occurred at CpG dinucleotide sequences and the codon for arginine was most frequently affected. Nineteen of 99 tumors with complex cytogenetic abnormalities, but none of 69 tumors with simple cytogenetic abnormalities, had mutations (P < .001). Similarly, 11 of 25 tumors with an abnormality of 17p and 8 of 143 tumors with apparently normal 17p had mutations (P < .0001). Positive correlations were found between a mutation and p53 expression (P < .001), between missense type mutations and p53 expression (P < .005), and between 17p abnormalities and p53 expression (P < .05). Twenty-two of 49 patients without mutation and 14 of 17 patients with mutations died (P < .05), but there was no significant difference in median survival. Similarly, 21 of 26 p53 positive patients died, whereas only 1 of 24 p53-negative patients died on-study (P < .001). Among p53-negative patients, mutation (P < .01) was positively associated with a fatal outcome. These findings indicate that in B-NHL, somatic changes in P53 were present in diagnostic specimens of all hIstologic types, but at a higher frequency in DLC and MC tumors. P53 mutation and/or expression has a negative influence on survival, and therefore can serve as prognostic indicators. Immunostaining for p53 is an effective way to screen for P53 changes in these tumors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology