Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) as a tool to visualize microinjected molecules and their eukaryotic sub-cellular targets

L. Evan Reddick, Neal M. Alto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The eukaryotic cell relies on complex, highly regulated, and functionally distinct membrane bound compartments that preserve a biochemical polarity necessary for proper cellular function. Understanding how the enzymes, proteins, and cytoskeletal components govern and maintain this biochemical segregation is therefore of paramount importance. The use of fluorescently tagged molecules to localize to and/or perturb subcellular compartments has yielded a wealth of knowledge and advanced our understanding of cellular regulation. Imaging techniques such as fluorescent and confocal microscopy make ascertaining the position of a fluorescently tagged small molecule relatively straightforward, however the resolution of very small structures is limited 1. On the other hand, electron microscopy has revealed details of subcellular morphology at very high resolution, but its static nature makes it difficult to measure highly dynamic processes with precision 2,3. Thus, the combination of light microscopy with electron microscopy of the same sample, termed Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) 4,5, affords the dual advantages of ultrafast fluorescent imaging with the high-resolution of electron microscopy 6. This powerful technique has been implemented to study many aspects of cell biology 5,7. Since its inception, this procedure has increased our ability to distinguish subcellular architectures and morphologies at high resolution. Here, we present a streamlined method for performing rapid microinjection followed by CLEM (Fig. 1). The microinjection CLEM procedure can be used to introduce specific quantities of small molecules and/or proteins directly into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm and study the effects from millimeter to multi-nanometer resolution (Fig. 2). The technique is based on microinjecting cells grown on laser etched glass gridded coverslips affixed to the bottom of live cell dishes and imaging with both confocal fluorescent and electron microscopy. Localization of the cell(s) of interest is facilitated by the grid pattern, which is easily transferred, along with the cells of interest, to the Epon resin used for immobilization of samples and sectioning prior to electron microscopy analysis (Fig. 3). Overlay of fluorescent and EM images allows the user to determine the subcellular localization as well as any morphological and/or ultrastructural changes induced by the microinjected molecule of interest (Fig. 4). This technique is amenable to time points ranging from ≤5 s up to several hours, depending on the nature of the microinjected sample.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA2
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number63
DOIs
StatePublished - May 4 2012

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Electron microscopy
Optical microscopy
Electron Microscopy
Light
Molecules
Microinjections
Eukaryotic Cells
Imaging techniques
Confocal Microscopy
Cytology
Proteins
Glass lasers
Cytoskeletal Proteins
Confocal microscopy
Immobilization
Glass
Cell Biology
Microscopy
Cytoplasm
Lasers

Keywords

  • Cellular biology
  • CLEM
  • Correlative light and electron microscopy
  • Fluorescent microscopy
  • Microinjection
  • Microscopy
  • Subcellular localization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

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title = "Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) as a tool to visualize microinjected molecules and their eukaryotic sub-cellular targets",
abstract = "The eukaryotic cell relies on complex, highly regulated, and functionally distinct membrane bound compartments that preserve a biochemical polarity necessary for proper cellular function. Understanding how the enzymes, proteins, and cytoskeletal components govern and maintain this biochemical segregation is therefore of paramount importance. The use of fluorescently tagged molecules to localize to and/or perturb subcellular compartments has yielded a wealth of knowledge and advanced our understanding of cellular regulation. Imaging techniques such as fluorescent and confocal microscopy make ascertaining the position of a fluorescently tagged small molecule relatively straightforward, however the resolution of very small structures is limited 1. On the other hand, electron microscopy has revealed details of subcellular morphology at very high resolution, but its static nature makes it difficult to measure highly dynamic processes with precision 2,3. Thus, the combination of light microscopy with electron microscopy of the same sample, termed Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) 4,5, affords the dual advantages of ultrafast fluorescent imaging with the high-resolution of electron microscopy 6. This powerful technique has been implemented to study many aspects of cell biology 5,7. Since its inception, this procedure has increased our ability to distinguish subcellular architectures and morphologies at high resolution. Here, we present a streamlined method for performing rapid microinjection followed by CLEM (Fig. 1). The microinjection CLEM procedure can be used to introduce specific quantities of small molecules and/or proteins directly into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm and study the effects from millimeter to multi-nanometer resolution (Fig. 2). The technique is based on microinjecting cells grown on laser etched glass gridded coverslips affixed to the bottom of live cell dishes and imaging with both confocal fluorescent and electron microscopy. Localization of the cell(s) of interest is facilitated by the grid pattern, which is easily transferred, along with the cells of interest, to the Epon resin used for immobilization of samples and sectioning prior to electron microscopy analysis (Fig. 3). Overlay of fluorescent and EM images allows the user to determine the subcellular localization as well as any morphological and/or ultrastructural changes induced by the microinjected molecule of interest (Fig. 4). This technique is amenable to time points ranging from ≤5 s up to several hours, depending on the nature of the microinjected sample.",
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N2 - The eukaryotic cell relies on complex, highly regulated, and functionally distinct membrane bound compartments that preserve a biochemical polarity necessary for proper cellular function. Understanding how the enzymes, proteins, and cytoskeletal components govern and maintain this biochemical segregation is therefore of paramount importance. The use of fluorescently tagged molecules to localize to and/or perturb subcellular compartments has yielded a wealth of knowledge and advanced our understanding of cellular regulation. Imaging techniques such as fluorescent and confocal microscopy make ascertaining the position of a fluorescently tagged small molecule relatively straightforward, however the resolution of very small structures is limited 1. On the other hand, electron microscopy has revealed details of subcellular morphology at very high resolution, but its static nature makes it difficult to measure highly dynamic processes with precision 2,3. Thus, the combination of light microscopy with electron microscopy of the same sample, termed Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM) 4,5, affords the dual advantages of ultrafast fluorescent imaging with the high-resolution of electron microscopy 6. This powerful technique has been implemented to study many aspects of cell biology 5,7. Since its inception, this procedure has increased our ability to distinguish subcellular architectures and morphologies at high resolution. Here, we present a streamlined method for performing rapid microinjection followed by CLEM (Fig. 1). The microinjection CLEM procedure can be used to introduce specific quantities of small molecules and/or proteins directly into the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm and study the effects from millimeter to multi-nanometer resolution (Fig. 2). The technique is based on microinjecting cells grown on laser etched glass gridded coverslips affixed to the bottom of live cell dishes and imaging with both confocal fluorescent and electron microscopy. Localization of the cell(s) of interest is facilitated by the grid pattern, which is easily transferred, along with the cells of interest, to the Epon resin used for immobilization of samples and sectioning prior to electron microscopy analysis (Fig. 3). Overlay of fluorescent and EM images allows the user to determine the subcellular localization as well as any morphological and/or ultrastructural changes induced by the microinjected molecule of interest (Fig. 4). This technique is amenable to time points ranging from ≤5 s up to several hours, depending on the nature of the microinjected sample.

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KW - Correlative light and electron microscopy

KW - Fluorescent microscopy

KW - Microinjection

KW - Microscopy

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