Computed tomography (CT) has become an important modality in the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). The tremendous technological advances in CT in the last two decades has made it possible to obtain high quality images of coronary arteries with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Multiple trials have confirmed the accuracy of CT compared to invasive catheter angiography. CT is also able to evaluate beyond the lumen in characterizing and quantifying atherosclerotic plaques, including evaluation of high risk features. Although CTA has low specificity in identification of lesion-specific ischemia, functional techniques are now possible such as CT myocardial perfusion and CT-fractional flow reserve (FFR) which evaluate the hemodynamic significance of stenosis and help with revascularization strategies. Multi-energy CT provides additional information beyond what is possible with a conventional CT and is useful in variety of clinical applications, including myocardial perfusion imaging, lesion characterization and low contrast studies. Large trials have confirmed the ability of CT to predict major adverse cardiovascular events and recent trials have even demonstrated improved clinical outcomes by using CT for the evaluation of CAD. CT is also useful in structural heart disease and 3 D printing is now increasingly used for surgical/interventional planning. Machine learning is evolving rapidly and is likely to impact diagnosis and management.
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