Background: Lung inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) modulate the inflammatory response. It is not known if antagonism of CXCR4 alleviates lung inflammation in neonatal hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Objective: We aimed to determine whether CXCR4 antagonism would attenuate lung injury in rodents with experimental BPD by decreasing pulmonary inflammation. Methods: Newborn rats exposed to normoxia (room air, RA) or hyperoxia (FiO<inf>2</inf> = 0.9) from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P16 were randomized to receive the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 or placebo (PL) from P5 to P15. Lung alveolarization, angiogenesis and inflammation were evaluated at P16. Results: Compared to the RA pups, hyperoxic PL pups had a decrease in alveolarization, reduced lung vascular density and increased lung inflammation. In contrast, AMD3100-treated hyperoxic pups had improved alveolarization and increased angiogenesis. This improvement in lung structure was accompanied by a decrease in the macrophage and neutrophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced lung myeloperoxidase activity. Conclusion: CXCR4 antagonism decreases lung inflammation and improves alveolar and vascular structure in neonatal rats with experimental BPD. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic strategy to alleviate lung injury in preterm infants with BPD.
- Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
- CXCR4 blockade
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health